Service Design Introduction in ITIL – ITIL Course

Service Design

Service Design is the service lifecycle phase that is responsible for designing appropriate, comprehensive and innovativeIT services.
Service Design is the phase in the lifecycle following Service Strategy. In this perspective, Service Design has to meet the objectives of Service Strategy and apply the strategies into the design.
The purpose  of the service  design  stage  of the lifecycle  is to design  IT services, together with the governing IT practices, processesand policies to realize the service providers strategy and to facilitate the introduction of these services into supported environments   ensuring  quality  service  delivery,  customer  satisfaction  and  cost– effective service provision.
Objectives of Service Design include the following:
•              Design services to deliver more effective and efficient IT and business solutions to satisfy business objectives
•   Reduce, minimize or constrain the long-term costs of service provision
•              Design  efficient  and effective  processes  fordesign,  transition,  operation  and improvement of high quality IT services
•   Design secure and resilient IT infrastructures
•   Design measurements methods and metrics
•              Produce  and  maintain  IT  plans,  processes,  architectures,  frameworks  and documentations
•   Develop the skills and capabilities within IT
•   Contribute to the improvementof the overall quality of IT services offered

The processes includedin the Service Design phase are:
•   Service Level Management (design)
•   Capacity Management
•   Availability Management
•   IT Service Continuity Management
•   Information SecurityManagement
•   Supplier Management
•   Service Catalog Management
Many of these activities will reoccur in other lifecycle phases.
Introduction Roles (Process  Owner)
The process owner’s  accountabilities include:
•   Sponsoring, designing and change managing the process and its metrics
•   Defining the processstrategy
•   Assisting with process design
•   Ensuring that appropriate processdocumentation is available and current
•              Defining  appropriate  policies  and  standards  to  be  employed  throughout  the process
•   Periodically auditing the process to ensure compliance to policy and standards
•              Periodically  reviewing the process strategy to ensure that it
is still appropriate and change as required
•              Communicating   process  information  or  changes  as  appropriate  to  ensure awareness
•              Providing  process  resources  to  support  activities  required  throughout   the service lifecycle
•              Ensuring  that  process  technician have  the  required  knowledge   and  the required technical and business understanding to deliver the process, and understand their role in the process
•              Reviewing  opportunitie for  process  enhancements   and  for  improving  the efficiency and effectiveness of the process
•   Addressing issues with the running of the process
•   Identifying improvement opportunities for inclusion in the CSI register
•              Working with the CSI managerand process managerto review and prioritize improvements in the CSI register
•   Making improvements to the process.
Roles (Process Manager)
The process manager’s accountabilities include:
 Working with the process owner to plan and coordinateall process activities
 Ensuring  thatall activities  are carried  out as required  throughout  the service lifecycle
 Appointing people to the required roles
 Managing resources assignedto the process
 Working  with  service  owners  and  other  process  managers  to  ensure  the smooth running of services
 Monitoring and reporting on processperformance
 Identifying improvement opportunities for inclusion in the CSI register
 Working  with  the  CSI  manager  and  process  owner  to  review  and  prioritize improvements in the CSI register
 Making improvements to the process implementation.

Roles (Process Practitioner)
The process practitioners responsibilities typically include:
 Carrying out one or more activities of a process
 Understanding  how their role contributes to the overall delivery of service and creation of value for the business
 Working with other stakeholders, such as their manager, co-workers, users and customers, to ensure that their contributions are effective
 Ensuring that inputs, outputs and interfaces for their activities are correct
 Creating  or  updating  records  to  show  that  activities  have  been  carried  out correctly
Roles (ServiceOwner)
The service owner has the following responsibilities:
•  Ensuring that the ongoing servicedelivery and support meet agreed customer requirements
 Working  with business  relationship  management  to understand  and translate customer requirements into activities, measures or service componentsthat will ensure that the serviceprovider can meet those requirements
 Ensuring   consistent   and  appropriate   communication   with  customer(s)   for service related enquiries and issues
 Assisting  in  defining  service  models  and  in  assessing  the  impact  of  new services   or   changes   to   existing   service through   the   servic portfolio management process
 Identifying  opportunities  for service  improvements,  discussing  these  with the customer and raising RFCs as appropriate
 Liaisingwith the appropriate process owners throughout the service lifecycle
Soliciting  required  data,  statistics  and  reports  for  analysis  and  to  facilitate effective servicemonitoring and performance
Providing input in serviceattributes such as performance, availability etc.
Representing the service across the organization
Understanding the service (components etc.)
Serving as the point of escalation (notification) for major incidents relating to the service
Representing the service in change advisory board (CAB) meetings
Participatingin internal service review meetings (within IT)
Participatingin external service review meetings (with the business)
Ensuring  that  the  service  entry  in  the  service  catalog  is  accurate  and  is maintained
Participating  in negotiating  service  level  agreements  (SLAs)  and  operational level agreements (OLAs) relating to the service
Identifying  improvement  opportunities  for  inclusion  in  the  continual  service improvement (CSI) register
Working with the CSI manager to review and prioritize improvements in the CSI
Making improvements to the service.
Value to the Business
With  a  good  design,  the  IT  organization  is  able  to  deliver  high-quality  and  cost effective services.
Some of the benefits obtainable from a good Service Design are:
•   Reduced Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)
•   Improved alignment, qualityand consistency of service.
•   Easier implementation of new or changed services.
•   More effective service performance.
•   Improved IT governance.
•   More effective Service Management and IT process.
•   Improved informationand decision-making.

Overview of Service Design
The Service  Design  stage  aims to design  service  solutions  to meet  the changing requirements of the business.
All designs must reflect the goals and objectives of the business. This means that the design  team  will have  to know  the key  strategies  in the  Service  Strategy,  the IT solutions and applications to be used, the services to be offered, the resources and capabilities of the IT organization, the market trends, the costing and the operational workflow.
The key output of the Service Design stage is the design of service solutions to meet the changing  requirements  of the business.  When designing  these solutions,  input from  many  different  areas  needs  to  be  considered  within  the  various  activities involved   in   designing   the   service   solution,   from   identifying   an analyzing requirements,  through  to  building  solution  and  SDP  to  hand  over  to  Service Transition.
In order to develop effective and efficient service solutions that meet and continue to meet the requirements of the business and the needs of IT, it is essential that all the inputs and needs of all other areas and processes are reconsidered  within each of the Service Designactivities. This will ensure that all service solutions are consistent and  compatibl with  existing  solutions   and  will  meet  the  expectations   of  the customers and users.This will most effectively be achieved by consolidating  these facets  of the key processes  intoall of these  Service  Design  activities,  so that all inputs are automatically referenced every time a new or changedservice solution is produced.
Some of the roles of Service Design Managerinclude the following:
•   Taking  the  overall  serv< span style="letter-spacing: .1pt;">ice  strategies  and  ensuring  they  are  reflected  in  the
Service Design practice
•   Designing the functional aspects of the services
•              Producing  quality, secure and resilient designs for new or improved  services, technology architecture,processes or measurement systems
•   Producing and maintaining all design documentation
•   Producing and maintaining all necessaryService Design Packages
•   Measuring the effectiveness and efficiency of the Service Design process

Service Portfolioand ServiceCatalog
Service Portfolio is producedas part of Service Strategy. Service Portfolio contains the Service Catalog.
Service  Portfolio  has  a  role  to  maintain  and  provide  a  central  accurate  set  of information  on all services.  The Service Portfolio  represents  thecommitments  and investments made by a service provider to all customers and market spaces. It also includes current contractual  commitments,  new servicedevelopments  and ongoing service improvement programs; as well as third-party services. The Service Portfolio contains information relating to every service and its current status within the organization.
Service Catalog is a subset of Service Portfolio. The Service Catalog should contain details of all operational  services  or those being prepared  for transition  to the live environment Thes include   details   of  services   and   activities   in  the   Service Operations and Service Transition lifecycles. The Catalog containsa customer-facing view  of  IT  services  that  enables  them  to  understand  the  services  offered,  the processes involved and quality of service to be expected.
Service DesignPackage
e Design Package (SDP) defines a set of design constraints against which the service  release  and  new  or  changed  service  will  be  developed  and  built.  This package  is then passed  fromService  Design  to Service  Transition.  It is produced during the design stage for each new cycle, major change to a service, removal of a service,or changes to the Service Design Package itself.
The SDP contains:
•              Details and requirements of the Services: the service, its functionality and the conditions under which the servicehas to be delivered
•              Service Design: the details of the required capacity, availability, continuity etc. for the specific service
•   Assessment: review of the serviceconditions and how they can be achieved
•              Service Lifecycle Plan: the expected duration and condition of the service to be operational

Service DesignAspects
There are several aspects of designs that are crucial to the overall integrated output of Service Design.
There are 5 major aspects of Service Design:
•              The design of the service solutions: In designing service solutions, a formal and structuredapproach is necessary,this is to ensure that the new services are at the right cost, functionality, quality and within the time frame.
•              The design of ServiceManagement  Systems  and Tools for the management and control  of services  throughout  their  lifecycle:  The  most  effective  way  of managing all aspects of services through their lifecycle is by using appropriate management  systems and tools to support and automate  efficientprocesses. The Service Portfolio is the most critical management  system used to support all processes and describes a providers services in terms of business value.
•              The design of the technology and management architecture and tools required to provide the services: Provides the overall strategic blueprints for the development  and  deployment  of an  IT  infrastructure.  This  includes  policies, operations, documentation and improvement plans.
•              The designof the processes needed to design, transition, operateand improve the  services:  Helps  to  understand  the  distinctive  features  of  a  process.  A process   includes   roles responsibilities,   tool and   management   controls. Process  control  enables  the  processes   to  be  performed   in  a  controlled, consistent, effective and efficient manner.
•              The design of the measurement systems, methods and metrics for the services, the   architecture   and   thei constituent   components   and   the   processes: Monitoring and measuring processes is vital to manage and control design processes. The four types of metrics are Progress, Compliance, Effectiveness and Efficiency.

The “Four Ps”
The implementation  of ITIL® service management  as a practice is about preparing and planning the effectiveand efficient use of the “Four Ps”.
The 4 Ps are:
•              People:    Communication,    training    and    clear    definitions    of    roles    and responsibilities  forall parties involved  areessential.  This aspect of the “Four Ps” is concerned with the soft” side of IT.
•              Processes: “Processes” is where ITI enters the design mechanism.It relates to the end-to-end delivery of servicesbased on process flows. The ITIL® processes are covered as a phased lifecycle.
•              Products:  There are now a numberof tools available  to IT organizations  that are considered “ITIL® compatible” and have been developed to complementIT Service Managementprocedures. These tools can assist in the implementation and running of IT services.
•              Partners: Suppliers and the management of suppliers, partners, manufacturers and vendors are essential to the provision of quality IT services.
Technology and Architecture
Technology and architecture that are going to be applied across the service lifecycle are determined and designed during Service Design.
Automation of processes is widely applied in IT organizations. Automation supports integration   of  processes   such  as  for  the  purpose  of  measuring   performance, knowledge management, improved utility and warrantyas well as reduced risks and costs.
Service   Operation   needs   an  integrated   IT  Servic Managemen Technology
(Toolset) that enables it to be managed efficiently. The core functionalities of the Toolset include:
•   Self  Help:  This  capability  is supported  with  some  form  of web  frontend.  A
menu-driven range of self-help and service requests is offered.
•              Workflow  or  Process  Engine:  This  capability  allows  the  pre-definition  and control of defined processes to be automatically managed.
•              Integrated  CMS:
 This  capability  allows  the  organization IT  infrastructure assets components,   services   and   Configuration   items   to  be  held   in  a centralized locationand linked to Incidents, Problem, Known Error and Change records.
              Discovery/Deployment/Licensing Technology:    This    capability    allows    the process to run from any location on the network, deploy new softwareto target locations,  and automatic  comparison  of software  licenses  details and license numbers
•              Remote Control: This capability  enables the Service Desk analysts and other support groups to take control of the users’ desk-top for investigation or correct settings
•              Diagnostic  Utilities:  This  capability  creates  and  use  diagnostic  scripts  and utilities to assist with earlier diagnosis of incidents
•              Reporting: This capability incorporates good reporting and can be used to input data to industry-standard reportingpackages.
•              Dashboards: This capability allows at a glance visibility of the overall IT service performance and availability levels.
•              Integration  with  Business  Service  Management:  Business  applications  and tools need to be interfaced with ITSM support tools to give the require d functi
Service  Design  Tools helps in simplifying  the development  of Service  Design by providing graphical views of the service and its constituent components.
Service Design tools and techniques can be used for:
•   Hardware design
•   Software design
•   Environmental design
•   Process design
•   Data design
The tools and techniques are many and varied, including both proprietary and non– proprietary, and are useful in:
•   Speeding up the design process
•   Ensuring that standardsand conventions are followed
•   Offering prototyping, modeling and simulation facilities
•   Enabling What if?” scenarios to be examined
•   Enabling checking and correlation of interfaces and dependencies
•              Validating designs before they are developedand implemented  to ensure that they satisfy and fulfill their intended requirements
Developing  Service  Designs  can  be  simplified  by  the  use  of  tools  that  provide graphical views of the service and its constituent components.

Competence and Skills Service Management
The specific roles within ITIL service management all require specific skills, attributes and competences  from the people involved to enable them to work effectively  and efficiently. However, whatever the role, it is imperative  that the person carrying out that role has the following attributes:
•   Awareness of the business priorities, objectives and business drivers.
•   Awareness of the role IT plays in enabling the business objectives to be met.
•   Customer service skills.
•   Awareness of what IT can deliver to the business, including latest capabilities.
•   The competence, knowledge and information necessaryto complete their role.
•              The  ability  to  use,  understand  and  interpret  the  best  practice,  policies  and procedures to ensure adherence.
•              Skills such as Management Skills, Communication Skills, Negotiation skills and an analytical mind.
The following are examples of attributes required in many of the roles, dependent on the organization and the specific roles assigned:
Management  skills:  Both  from  person  management  perspective  and  from  the overall control of process
Ability  to  handle  meetings:  Organizing,  chairing,  and  documenting  meetings  and ensuringthat actions are followed up
Communication  skills: An important element of all roles is raising awareness of the processes in place to ensure buyin and conformance. An ability to communicate at all levels within the organization will be imperative
Articulateness: Both written (e.g. for reports) and verbal
Negotiation  skills:  Are  required  for  several  aspects,  such  as  procurement   and contracts
An analytical mind: To analyze metrics producedfrom the activity.

Competence and Skills Framework
Standardizing job titles, functions, roles and responsibilities can simplify service management and human resource management.
Many service providers use a common framework of reference for competence and skills to support activities such as skill audits, planning future skill requirements, organizat< /span>ional development programs and resource allocation.
The Skills Framework  for the Information  Age (SFIA)is an example  of a common reference  model  for  the  identification  of the  skills  needed  to develop  effective  IT services, information systems and technology.
SFIA  defines  seven  generic  levels  at  which  tasks  can  be  performed,  with  the associated professional skills required for each level.
A second dimension defines core competencies that can be combined with the professional skills.
SFIA   is  used   by  many   IT  servic provider to  identify   career   development opportunities.
Training in servicemanagement  helps service providers to build and maintain their service management capability. Training needs must be matched to the requirements for competence and professional development.
The   officia ITIL   qualification   scheme   enables   organizations   to   develop   the competence of their personnel through approved training courses. The courses help students to gain knowledge  of ITIL best practices, develop their competencies  and gain a recognized qualification. The scheme has four levels:
•   Foundation level
•   Intermediate level
•   ITIL Expert
•   ITIL Master
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